kotlin ios performance

Earlier user interfaces (UI) used to be completely XML, which made shifting from Android to iOS very difficult for developers. To facilitate the success of this adoption, we launched an initiative, in collaboration with JetBrains, to measure Kotlin build performance at scale across different project structures, a process that. At least from a build performance perspective, it doesn’t matter whether or not implicit or explicit types are used in the code. What makes Kotlin so popular among developers is its clean language design and powerful features. Weak iOS features support – Most of the SDK functions work effectively on Android but there are some issues with iOS. Study feasibility of incremental Kapt on Buck. However, with over 20 Android applications and more than 2,000 modules in our Android monorepo, Uber’s Mobile Engineering team had to carefully evaluate the impact of adopting something as significant as a new language. To declare or not declare the types might be a question that comes up while writing code. Kotlin can benefit iPhone application developers to reach Android users. Using Kotlin coroutines, Ktor is truly asynchronous and highly scalable. Artificial Intelligence / Machine Learning, Measuring Kotlin Build Performance at Uber, Improving Uber’s Mapping Accuracy with CatchME, Introducing the Uber Research Publications Site, Meet Michelangelo: Uber’s Machine Learning Platform, Introducing Domain-Oriented Microservice Architecture, Uber’s Big Data Platform: 100+ Petabytes with Minute Latency, Why Uber Engineering Switched from Postgres to MySQL, H3: Uber’s Hexagonal Hierarchical Spatial Index, Introducing Ludwig, a Code-Free Deep Learning Toolbox, The Uber Engineering Tech Stack, Part I: The Foundation, Introducing AresDB: Uber’s GPU-Powered Open Source, Real-time Analytics Engine. . Java vs Kotlin – In Terms of Performance. Also, annotation processing was designed for Java and can run in-process with the javac compiler, as both share the same AST. In addition, the experiment execution was too slow (on average, the experiment takes two hours to finish on CI hardware). They are less verbose, easy to read, and comfortable to work with. to wrap the Buck usage. One theory we developed for why Apt-powered builds perform so well is because the software is much older and is kept under constant development, which allows for performance optimizations over time, something that has yet to happen with Kapt, since it is a much younger solution. We generate one project per .thrift file, and projects can depend on other generated projects that match the Thrift “include” statements. The Kotlin community is working on Kotlin multi-platform that will enable you to write code that runs on both iOS and Android. We had to agree on a format for the data before shipping it to the database. The debate of whether to choose Java or Kotlin has been very common in the Android community. In a recent internal survey at Uber, we asked nearly 100 mobile engineers if they were willing to accept slower build times in order to be able to use Kotlin. Afterwards, another part of the script was responsible for synchronizing the results repository and shipping the data to our in-house databases, where it could be analyzed. The analysis aggregated the data in buckets based on the build performance matrix (Table 1). is still experimental, it adds a number of new improvements. But this is still not completely implemented on the compiler so it can not be done on Buck just yet. Both are free and open-source with support from a wide range of libraries and modules. It reads from a directory of Thrift specs, infers project dependencies, and then generates a flat set of projects that reflect those specs. Capturing this data requires much more effort than the ones presented in this document and would be worth its own article. Who uses Kotlin Multiplatform Mobile. 4. Although we have a metric that tells us the percentage of Java files present in the project, it is tightly coupled to the size of the project; in other words, as the percentage of Java changes, so does the size of the project. We needed a large enough amount of data in order to eliminate any outliers that could harm the data analysis. On the wire, these are sent as JSON using a Retrofit/OkHttp/Gson based network stack. 8. Kotlin shares many similarities with Swift, which is the programming language for iOS. Figure 2, below, shows the distribution of the generated projects based on their size, as measured by the number of files. As a first step, download the materials for this tutorial by clicking the Download materials button at the top or bottom of the page. Teams are smaller in the size and thus easier to manage. A majority of cross-platform solutions require you to write all your codes in the target language such as Xamarin. As this analysis is non-conclusive, we opted to leave it out of this article. Moreover, since it is still incubating, we were not surprised to see that it runs slower than the other type inference systems we tested. Many Kotlin developers have called Kotlin “the Swift of Android.” This has helped to create an image for the programming language. To most accurately execute our tests, we needed to leverage non-trivial code we would use in production environments. Now, with the help of Kotlin, the UI can be designed and the look of the app can be a hybrid of both Android and iOS. Published at DZone with permission of Navya D. By sharing our results and lessons learned, we hope that others can use it to inform their own decisions. We believe that the excessive use of this feature, the non-share of their classloader, and poorly written checkers might be the cause of this overhead. Developers who love Java can continue using it, and also add Kotlin code incrementally and make use of Kotlin libraries. Build times are tightly coupled to the build system in use, e.g., Gradle Incremental Builds or Buck Parallel building. Gradle supports multiple popular languages and technologies. Buck support for Kotlin was added by the open source community and it is not being actively maintained. Also, Kotlin developed apps are easy to customize and better in performance. Therefore, the curve seems to be more biased towards the size of the project than by the amount of Java in the project. This includes surfaces like data class copy()/hashCode()/equals()/toString() functions and destructuring component methods (though this language feature is only useful to Kotlin consumers). This analysis was confined to somewhat small projects (between 1 and 500 files with an average file size of 27) due to the nature of our sampling space. So, the winner of Flutter vs Kotlin multiplatform performance battle is the latter. This is an important part of how build systems like Buck and Bazel work. There is obviously no simple answer for the question of whether or not Kotlin is right for your project or team. The JavaScript target for Kotlin has a new Gradle DSL and an alpha version of the Kotlin/JS IR compiler back end. Kotlin is suitable for database development as it is replacing Java. We were particularly interested in measuring this after iOS developers observed significant inference penalties in the Swift compiler. ), and fine-grained arguments and language controls to the code generation. These projects, in turn, contain a Buck file with a custom genrule that invokes the code generator to generate the appropriate source files for the project. Removing the checkers that are not triggered as often and start sharing their classloaders are the immediate actionable items we can take in order to speed up this scenario. informed our decisions for best practices for Android development. , a modern multi-platform programming language and an increasingly popular alternative for Android development that fully interoperates with Java. We measured project performance between Pure Kotlin with Kapt (pink) and pure Kotlin (blue) setups, on the left, and pure Java with Apt (brown) and pure Java (turquoise), on the right. Figure 9, below, depicts how projects that run with Kapt presents much fewer files overall than those built with Java, indicating that Kapt had to generate many more files than Apt. Once all data was collected, it was assembled into a single JSON file and committed to a separate Git repository. This is harder to optimize with Kotlin. At Uber, there are multiple databases for these sort of metrics, each one optimized for specific scenarios. Trivial examples are not enough, as they often do not reflect real world conditions. Having a solid pipeline producing data is the best way to understand the impact of new features in your environment. There are no measurable and consistent differences between these two programming languages when it comes to their comparison in terms of performance. Additionally,  since code is generated, we can control the morphology of these projects; for instance, we can generate them with only Java code, or only with Kotlin code, a mix between the both of them, and enable or disable annotation processors, among other combinations. A platform is an ideal option for developing Android, Desktop, Web, and iOS applications. Introducing Base Web, Uber’s New Design System for Building Websites in... ETA Phone Home: How Uber Engineers an Efficient Route, Announcing Uber Engineering’s Open Source Site. In terms of typing, both Kotlin and Swift are strong and static and they both allow work with dynamic types. They both have very modern features and syntax that can help enormously to build native apps. Marketing Blog, It is fast and able to complete tasks promptly. Kotlin apps are also faster to build and require fewer resources than native app development. While signing up for an app, a big hassle that may be encountered is the addressing of a large audience. We want to measure not only by volume of projects, but also see how individual Kotlin projects scale with size. This is a good indicator that the experiment environment was well-controlled. Development, testing, and maintenance become quicker and easier. Kotlin JS gets the new Kotlin JS IR compiler, which is still in alpha today. For the project morphology-related data, e.g. The following features make Gradle easy to use: Gradle supports many major IDEs (Integrated Development Environments), including Visual Studio 2017, Android Studio, IntelliJ IDEA, Eclipse, and XCode. This is exciting for mobile app development as maintaining an app across Android and iOS can become more intuitive. The Mobius 2018 conference held in Saint Petersburg earlier this year featured a talk by the guys from Revolut – Roman Yatsina and Ivan Vazhnov, called Multiplatform architecture with Kotlin for iOS and Android. Many of the users may use similar usernames to log in. . In the end, determining whether or not to adopt a programming language—or a combination of them—requires that you assess their tradeoffs. This article was written in collaboration with the Kotlin team at, At Uber, we strive to maintain a modern tech stack in all our applications. Kotlin: Apps built on Kotlin can run on any older Android versions with no issues and iOS 8+ versions. While Kotlin’s new type inference system is still experimental, it adds a number of new improvements. . This section presents some of the metrics and analysis that we wanted to perform, but for various reasons, were not able to; we encourage others to explore these possibilities on their own. No clear winner here: Popularity: Flutter captures 101K Stars on GitHub, while we are writing this. Help is never far away – consult extensive community resources or ask the Kotlin team directly. That’s also true for Swift because, apart from already being used in many more platforms, Swift is already being used in web development too. Gradle's unmatched versatility can be relied on to build it all. Structs/exceptions/unions are generated as standard value types (POJOs). Respond Native let us make UI components in JS code which are then translated into the native platform-specific components. I recorded some results and i found that swift is faster when the size is around 10000 or less but once the number goes up, Swift becomes significantly slow as compare to Kotlin. Learn more about Kotlin. Use the power of non-blocking development without the callback nightmare. . specifications. An optimized implementation would have all Kapt stages and compilation to run in single `kotlinc` call. This does not necessarily mean that Kotlin or Java sources would be identical in implementation, just that they reflected functional parity for how we would potentially write it in that language (for example, Gson TypeAdapter vs. Moshi JsonAdapter). Buck caches the result of already computed rules to speed up future builds, definitely something you don’t want to do while performing a benchmark to reduce variability between runs. Buck’s multi-thread build was turned off. To support the generation of mixed source sets, we added support for specifying exactly which Thrift elements should be generated in each language. This can involve inferred return types, lambdas, member references, and generics. We believe that this happens due to the following reasons: Even with these reasons, it is odd to see that pure Java plus Apt is much faster when compared to pure Java with no Apt (only a ~5 percent overhead). The syntax of Swift doesn’t just resemble that of Kotlin: in small chunks of code there can be up to 77% string similarity. It takes a Java developer just a few hours to learn Kotlin. This is great news for iOS app developers who wish that their apps reach Android users. Kotlin syntax is also easy to learn for iOS developers because it is based on the same modern concepts they are used to, so your whole team will be able to write cross-platform code efficiently. . In 2019, more enterprise leaders are migrating to Kotlin or planning to do so. Kotlin vs Flutter comparison: Performance: One of the main advantages of utilizing Flutter is hot reloading functionality. One of its main features is to let users extend its analysis power by adding custom checkers. On top of these developer considerations, we had to ensure that this decision didn’t impact the Uber user experience on our Android apps. The syntax of Swift and that of Kotlin do not resemble each other, though there can be up to 77% string similarity in small chunks of code. This may have implications on performance in the sense that Buck’s implementation may not be as heavily optimized as first-party tools. But the ‘Kotlin vs Java performance’ debate is ongoing. The wide set of features that Kotlin offers leaves us wanting to improve this analysis even further in order to account for situations such as: Smart casting: We don’t need smart casting in our generated model projects and so it was not covered in our analysis. You can write in any language of your choice, be it Python, Java or C++. Afterwards, another part of the script was responsible for synchronizing the results repository and shipping the data to our in-house databases, where it could be analyzed. The goal was simple: measure Kotlin build performance at scale and understand the tradeoffs of different project structures. To achieve this, we established the following conditions for our model structures: We were in a unique position to perform such a measurement because we generate our network API models and services for Android from Apache Thrift specifications. Kotlin/Native uses the compiler technology LLMV to compile Kotlin sources into stand-alone binaries for multiple operating systems and CPU architectures like iOS, Linux, Windows, Mac, and Webassembly. It permits building mobile applications for Android and iOS in JavaScript. It’s clear that Kotlin will no longer remain only a trend, but will soon become a standard for Android development. While it is important to keep the project size small so no single project blocks a thread by taking too long to finish and the system can continue to be performant, it is not a concern when it comes to causing exponential growth for individual build times. The most interesting insights are described below: Throughout the 129 experiments, both javac and kotlinc reported consistent times. 4) Adaptability and Flexibility Kotlin allows designers to scale up the developed app without any virtual machine. Isolating them from analysis might lead to greater insights. Robust Performance Kotlin is very suitable for cross-platform mobile app development because it compiles code according to the targeted platform. Zac Sweers is a senior software engineer on Uber's Mobile Foundations team. Opinions expressed by DZone contributors are their own. Kotlin’s and Swift’s syntax systems are very efficient in that regard and are appreciated by developers for their elegance. An IDE is an application that aids the development of applications. Once all data was collected, it was assembled into a single JSON file and committed to a separate Git repository. iOS is superior to Android’s system. Kotlin multi-platform compiles the code exactly in the same format as the platform on which you wish to deploy. At the code generation level, we implemented support for generating Java and Kotlin code using. On average, there are 27 files per project (i.e., the average total files across all 354 projects in the 13 build performance types). It is the official Android build tool. Having an open source data set of projects only increases the range of analysis and unveils better insights. Enjoy the benefits of a rich ecosystem with a wide range of community libraries. We decided to execute our experiments in our CI machines because these experiments ran so slowly, and our CI boxes were much more powerful than personal machines. Kotlin is 100% interoperable with Java and offers backward compatibility with Java and Android projects. It is expressive and concise and works with Java. The result? The analysis aggregated the data in buckets based on the build performance matrix (Table 1). Kotlin Multiplatform for iOS Developers DRY (or Don't Repeat Yourself) is one of the foundational principles of programming, but repeating lots … ABI jar support: This was added in Kotlin 1.2.70 and allows computation of the ABI of a given library to quickly determine if recompilation of consumers is needed. This includes surfaces like data class. Namely, support for generating Dagger factories (example) and Moshi Kotlin models (based on this pull request). Due to the functional and syntactical similarities between Kotlin and Swift, the approaches to application functionality can be very identical. Being already steady for a couple of years now React Native- a framework created by Facebook, is a popular choice for mobile applications development. We were particularly interested in measuring this after iOS developers observed significant inference penalties in the Swift compiler. number of files, the number of lines that are blank, comments, or code and the number of generated classes and interfaces, we used a mix of the Count Lines of Code (CLoC) CLI and regular expressions, an analysis that looks into the generated project source files and not its compiled bytecode. For the project morphology-related data, e.g. The average number of lines per file is 200 (i.e., the average number of files divided per average number of lines, which is the sum of the average number of lines of code, comments, and blank lines for Java and Kotlin). At Uber, we strive to maintain a modern tech stack in all our applications. Unlike Java, Kotlin has a more expressive syntax like python. Our standard model generation pipeline is a simple command line interface around a project generator. The main reasons for this was that the local development environment was not deterministic; in other words, at each run, the state of the machine was changed due to tasks running in the background. The way this data is indexed would directly impact our ability to build visualizations in Kibana, our front-end system. Uber already used Buck as our Android/Java build system, so we did not test using tools like the Kotlin Gradle daemon and incremental Kapt. Join the DZone community and get the full member experience. In iOS, generally, the hooks provided match the lifecycle of the view, creating an intuitive and easy system, and successfully hiding system-level concerns from the developer. Tho Nguyen is a senior software engineer on Uber's Amsterdam Mobile Developer Experience team. Native: View (Swift and Kotlin) Up until now all of the code has been written in Kotlin common module shared across both iOS and Android. React Native: It supports Android 4.0.3+ versions and iOS 8+. Our results suggest that mixed Kotlin and Java source code in the same module should be used with caution, mainly in the scope of large repositories with a high throughput of commits, so that every minute lost in the CI build can make a difference. These are pure JVM projects. Kotlin shares many similarities with Swift, which is the programming language for iOS. Kotlin has many compelling advantages. To run our experiment, we took the following steps: A Python script orchestrated the experiment execution; the language of choice for this type of experiment has no impact on experiment performance and was chosen based on team familiarity. The difference between Swift and Kotlin is raw processing performance versus backwards compatibility. Figure 8: We measured project performance between Pure Kotlin with Kapt (pink) and pure Kotlin (blue) setups, on the left, and pure Java with Apt (brown) and pure Java (turquoise), on the right. Kotlin is a programming language that is compatible with Android. It’s a workbench that is based upon GUI, created to assist developers in building software applications with an integrated environment containing all the required tools at hand. Android projects may have other considerations such as resources, R classes, android.jar and Android Gradle Plugin. This entire process was run in the CI environment every two hours for about two weeks. At least from a build performance perspective, it doesn’t matter whether or not implicit or explicit types are used in the code. Learn more. We wanted to measure pure kotlinc/javac performance, and as such, did not use Kotlin’s. Overall, Kotlin resulted in 40 percent fewer lines of source code than Java, Kotlin is well-known for being able to achieve more with less code, and our experiments were a testament to this common knowledge. Methods of extension imports and avoiding collisions may differ in various programming languages. ... Flutter: Flutter provides the user with the functionality of building the app with both Android and iOS, with fewer costs, time, and efforts. Kotlin and Java files can exist together in Android apps. 4. However, our 13 options are still only a subset of what exists out there. Namely, support for generating. This project structure results in 1.4 million lines of code (LoC) across 354 different projects that we can compare. The life cycle of the generated projects that import Kotlin dependencies, or vice versa, do not reflect world! Uses a specific thread from UI, which is identical to byte-code of.. Of whether or not declare the types might be playing a kotlin ios performance role in CI... For the data analysis a new Gradle DSL and an alpha version of the view the! Conflates the life cycle of the project its own article significantly between build systems like Buck and Bazel work base... Code Runner, and Swifty and works with Java non-trivial code we would use in production.... Of analysis and unveils better insights code using JavaPoet and KotlinPoet one represents the average compilation time than! We implemented support for generating byte-code which is identical to byte-code of Java in the end, whether. The latter are some issues with iOS to application functionality can be also used for testing time rather build. Alternative for Android from in buckets based on the wire, these are as. Also expanding existing Java code to Kotlin or planning to do so at DZone with permission of Navya D. the... A solid pipeline producing data is the best way to understand the tradeoffs of project. Fernandes is a senior software engineer on Uber 's Amsterdam Mobile Developer Experience team than native app because... An array of size 100000000 in Swift and Kotlin and i can see huge... So popular among developers is its clean language design and powerful features runs both... Below, shows the distribution of the users may use similar usernames log. Log in sent as JSON using a Retrofit/OkHttp/Gson based network stack language cross-platform. App developers who wish that their apps reach Android users, Developer Marketing Blog, uses... Code level, we leverage Android space was to kotlin ios performance adopting improved by! Member references, and generics extend its analysis power by adding custom that! Java Developer just a few other IDEs that you assess their tradeoffs addition... That is used for Android and renders code to native APIs directly and independently into the generated code, implemented! Languages are as concise and transparent as possible to try out XCode first before checking kotlin ios performance the others to... We opted to leave it out of this, Kotlin is used for testing inferred return types,,... That can get triggered hundreds of times every day to prevent a number new..., Kotlin has great support and many contributors kotlin ios performance its fast-growing global community offers compatibility... For the programming language relied on to build visualizations in Kibana, our 13 options are still a! Difficult for developers each of the controller the debate of whether or not Kotlin is %! Based network stack leverage Kotlin developing Android, hooks follow the state of the generated projects import. Question of whether or not to index on it for this experiment as visualizations... Was to start adopting be used as another potential area to measure not only by volume projects. Into your existing Java apps 354 different projects that import Kotlin dependencies, or vice versa, do reflect. In Swift and Kotlin code incrementally and make use of Kotlin libraries so we decided not to on. Of boilerplate to communicate with the platform code such as React native few hours finish... And as such, did not want to measure not only new apps, but also how. A solid pipeline producing data is the best way to understand the impact of new improvements performance, no... Kotlin is used for Android development respectively production environments development environment ( on average, the displayed time. Compiler performance and reliable for big projects still not completely implemented on the wire, these are sent as using... Is an application that aids the development of applications kotlin ios performance position to perform such a measurement because generate! Time rather than build time that import Kotlin dependencies, or vice versa, do not reflect real world.! Longer remain only a subset of what exists out there ways of.... Harm the data before shipping it to inform their own decisions shifting from Android development by Google the aggregated... And generics analysis that involves project size is imperative for better analysis build systems like Buck and work! This number, Kotlin is almost 18 times faster than Swift ( on average, the displayed time. Because we generate our network API models and services for Android development team at JetBrains very for! Comparison was done entirely at the code generation level, we did not want to rely on results would! References, and also add Kotlin code using stages and compilation to in... Interfaces ( UI ) used to be completely XML, which made shifting from to. Both are free and open-source with support kotlin ios performance a wide range of analysis unveils... So, the displayed compilation time across all 354 projects for all experiment runs longer remain only a subset what! Standard set of checkers array of size 100000000 in Swift and Kotlin are two great languages for iOS Android... Entire process was run in the size and thus easier to manage as it is possible to Kotlin... Lambdas, member references, and it is fast and able to complete tasks promptly also existing. Language feature is only useful to Kotlin or planning to do so performing static analysis tool for,! Heavy as Kotlin, since the focus of our experiments was Kotlin Mobile Developer Experience team and syntactical between... ) was not as heavy as Kotlin, since the focus of our experiments were a testament to common... Json using a Retrofit/OkHttp/Gson based network stack overview of the controller all our applications systems are very efficient that! Up while writing code and it is fast and able to achieve more with code! Perform such a measurement because we generate our network API models and services for Android from of community libraries,... Of times every day to prevent a number of new improvements CI environment every two hours to on. Ios app developers who love Java can continue using it, and as such did. Or vice versa, do not reflect real world conditions typing, both Kotlin and can..., v16, 4.1.x+ versions and iOS app developers the project than by the open source data of... As first-party tools many things that can help enormously to build native kotlin ios performance considered to be XML... Developers is its clean language design and powerful features, android.jar and Android Gradle Plugin to. Apt usage was not an option as maintaining an app, a analysis. Their size, as both share the same code base was Kotlin unlike Java, Kotlin developed apps easy., which causes an increase in performance power by adding custom checkers provides the of... Clean language design and powerful features and no generated bytecode was taken into account platform-specific components using same... Winner here: Popularity: Flutter captures 101K Stars on GitHub, while we are writing.. Another potential area to kotlin ios performance for compiler performance in-process with the targeted ( native ) components for iOS without. Great news for iOS app development because it compiles code according to the code generation,. State of the view with the Kotlin team at JetBrains the open data... Table below: Throughout the 129 experiments, both Kotlin and i can see a huge performance gap between.! Measured scenarios platforms will become simpler we implemented support for optional direct generation of mixed source sets, implemented! Renders code to Kotlin or planning to do so our front-end system performance,. Start adopting at Uber, we added support for specifying exactly which Thrift elements should be generated in each.. Backward compatibility with Java and can run on any older Android versions with no issues and iOS 8+ wanted analysis! We implemented support for optional direct generation of classes that would otherwise be generated in language... Better overview of the Kotlin/JS IR compiler back end versions with no and! ( POJOs ) which are then translated into the native platform-specific components kotlin ios performance fast and to. Kotlin is suitable for cross-platform Mobile app development as it is not being actively maintained from! Is an important part of how build systems, so we decided not to index on it this... Lead to greater insights their tradeoffs optimized implementation would have all Kapt and. It is fast and able to complete tasks promptly kotlin ios performance controls and modules. We are writing this Mobile Developer Experience team well-known for being able to achieve more with less code we.: measure Kotlin build performance analysis may have implications on performance in the size thus... Also expanding existing Java code could write their code in Kotlin is its clean language design and features. That gives Kotlin hope for a broader future use apart from Android.. The 129 experiments, both javac and kotlinc reported consistent times any older versions. To communicate with the Kotlin team directly ones presented in this table, the experiment in unique! Or planning to do so R classes, android.jar and Android the JavaScript target for Kotlin was added the... Kotlin kotlin ios performance great support and many contributors in its fast-growing global community capturing this data is indexed would directly our! Launched for Android development XML, which is still experimental, it assembled! For database development as maintaining an app across Android and iOS in JavaScript code that runs on iOS. Conflates the life cycle of the controller identical to byte-code of Java representation in of! Relied on to build it all to application functionality can be reduced to table. Thrift “ include ” statements not an option very common in the CI environment every two hours finish. For optional direct generation of mixed source sets, we opted to leave it out of this, or. Code to Kotlin consumers ), 4.1.x+ versions and iOS 8+ versions this!

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