However, the boundaries of the three villages gradually became less distinct, and before the battle of Plassey, the city could be divided into four different sub-areas: European Kolkata (Dihi Kolkata); a residential village with some sacred spots (Gobindapur); a traditional Indian market (Bazar Kalikata or Burrabazar); and a riverine mart concentrating on cloth trade (Sutanati). Until recently, it was believed that Job Charnock, an agent of the East India Company, had founded this city. (after London) and was aptly renamed "City of Palaces" and the Great Eastern Hotel was regarded as the "Jewel of the East". Why did calcutta gain importance under the british Get the answers you need, now! "Last Days of the Rickshaw. Warehouses in Visakhapatnam were destroyed and many English men were captured and put to death. Prompting Religious and Reformation Movement: In 1698, the Company bought three villages (Sutanuti, Kalikata and Gobindapur) from a local landlord family of Sabarna Roy Choudhury. Capital of British India. This common pairing of the goddess Kali standing on her husband, the god Shiva, illustrates the importance Tantra places on feminine creative power (shakti).Shiva is a shava (corpse) without the feminine presence of Shakti.. Disraeli did, however, succeed in purchasing controlling shares in the Suez Canal Company, easing British worries over who would control the vital quick route to the east. Question 8. When the Mughal officials, not wishing to lose what they had gained from the English company’s commerce, permitted Charnock to return once more, he chose Calcutta as the seat of his operations. One of the primary reasons for this move was because Calcutta had proven to be a breeding ground for revolution against the British Empire’s rule over India. The British Joint Stock Company, as it was known earlier, was founded by John Watts and George White for trade with Asian nations in the south and south-east. The company bought opium from local traders and later directly from farmers, and sold it at auction in Calcutta. Exactly what British life in 18 th century Calcutta was like varied. However, the Firman was vague in many aspects and soon disputes started to grow between the English and the governor. And, for good measure, he got parliamentary approval to bestow the new title ‘Empress of India’ upon Queen Victoria in 1876. The Governor's troops did not bother them there since they knew the Company would not be able to survive long there. Siraj ud-Daula escaped but was later caught and killed by Miran, the son of Mir Jafar. Citing non-existent reasons, he attacked Murshidabad, having previously reached an agreement with Mir Jafar to install him on the musnud of Bengal. ... which had long been under British … Each had to be approved by the central government in New Delhi.. When Madras fell to Dupleix, the British were still able to direct the war from another of their strongholds, Calcutta. Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta in English, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly. For this, Captain Heath was sent to Bengal with 160 soldiers either to fight and win against the forces of the governor or to bring back all the properties of the company to Madras and abandon the trade in Bengal. Ibrahim Khan again sent letter to Mr. Charnock explaining that he had requested for the special Firman from the Emperor and it would take a few months before it arrived, and in the meantime Mr. Charnock was welcome to settle in Bengal and the governor would pay him 80,000 rupees for the goods that have been destroyed by Shaista Khan's regime. Renamed Netaji by poet laureate Rabindranath Tagore, he is regarded by many as perhaps the most prominent and influential freedom fighter in Indian history and is venerated in many Bengali households even today. Older textbooks mention both Calcutta and Bombay as financial centres, with some preferring Calcutta over Bombay. Jones worked closely with the pandits of the Kalighat Temple, together with the local ulema, in translating and producing new editions of rare and forgotten texts. The Black Hole of Calcutta was a small prison in Fort William, India, and became the site of a tragedy where many British prisoners supposedly died on the evening of 20 June 1756. (Ironically, this is the same city that has historically been a strong base of Indian communism: West Bengal was ruled by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) dominated Left Front for nearly three decades — the world's longest-running democratically elected communist government. The Mughal Empire that had control over most of the Indian subcontinent had been weakened by a series of wars with the British East India Company, and thus as a result by the year 1750 the empire was breaking into smaller territories and states. Among early nationalist leaders, the most prominent were Sri Aurobindo, Indira devi Chaudhurani, Bipin Chandra Pal. In 1727, on the order of King George I, a civil court was set up in the city. The reason… The farmer misunderstood due to language problems and thought that he was referring as to when he harvested his paddy. Poverty existed in India before the British, thanks in part to constant war, food shortages, and the caste system, but in general Indian society took care of everyone. It is said that 123 Britons later died in the Black Hole of Calcutta after his victory, but recent evidence calls into question the numbers involved, and suggests that the Nawab himself was probably unaware of what transpired. British merchants and aristocrats held shares in this joint stock company. The British Empire was one of the largest colonial empires in history, which is a masterful feat, given the country's comparatively small size. It is the third oldest church in the city, next to the Armenian and the Old Mission Church. The British gained strength in the region as the Mughal empire weakened. However the peace was broken again when some Company troops misbehaved with Shaista Khan's troops in Hooghly on 28 October 1686 for which the former were severely beaten by the latter. Emperor Aurangzeb, enraged with the situation that the Company fortified Madras, occupied territory around it, captured Mughal ships, went into alliance with his enemy Sambhaji, he ordered his commanders everywhere in India to exterminate Company from the country and seize their properties anywhere to be found. 1. Many scholars in India and the West agree today that the British power depended upon excellent cooperation with Indian elites and that the British rule did not change the highly divisive caste … Muslims were also involved in the nationalist movement, most notably Fazl Huq who from Calcutta in the 1930s attempted to organise a non-communal peasant party to agitate against the British and the wealthy Indian landowning class. The road to fall was an array of incidents, from internal rebellion to war of succession, weakening the army. Unfortunately the plan went awry; some of the ships, due to the change in current and wind, arrived at Hooghly instead of Chittagong and anchored off the factory in Hooghly after being joined by their Madras troops. Delhi in all aspects provided a haven totally under the British control. By 1696, when a rebellion broke out in the nearby district of Burdwan, the Mughal provincial administration had become friendly to the growing settlement. How did the empire become so wildly successful at expanding? Since 2000, Information Technology (IT) services revitalized the city's stagnant economy. But even after seventy years of Independence there is Champaran everywhere in India. In 1775, when Hastings was Governor-General, Nanda Kumar brought accusations of corruption against him, accusing him of accepting bribes and other abuses of power. Kolkata, Bengali Kalikata, formerly Calcutta, city, capital of West Bengal state, and former capital (1772–1911) of British India.It is one of India’s largest cities and one of its major ports. When a fortnight passed without any answer from the king, Captain Heath, frustrated and dejected, returned to Madras on 4 March 1689. Kolkata is also noted for its revolutionary history, ranging from the Indian struggle for independence to the leftist Naxalite and trade-union movements. With his back to the wall, Charnock was desperately willing to negotiate with Shaista Khan to get out of this mess. Don't worry! The city has also experienced a growth in the manufacturing sector. Charnock decided it was not safe to remain in Sutanuti and moved to the island village at Hijli. Growth of the city In 1717 the Mughal emperor Farrukh-Siyar granted the East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees; this arrangement gave a great impetus to the growth of Calcutta. Calcutta was recaptured in January 1757 by Robert Clive, one of the founders of British power in India, and by the British admiral Charles Watson. 1. Some Englishmen prospered significantly under the EIC and returned to Britain with great wealth, which allowed them to establish sprawling estates, create lucrative business, and gain political power. When the Seven Years' War broke out, owing to their constant rivalry with the French, and the fall of Madras to the forces of Dupleix, early in 1756 the British authorities in Calcutta began repairs to the fortifications of old Fort William, which were extremely decayed. The site was carefully selected, being protected by the Hooghly River on the west, a creek to the north, and by salt lakes about two and a half miles to the east. Enraged still further when the British granted asylum to one Krishnaballav, who had embezzled money from the dewani of Dhaka, Siraj ud-Daula first attacked and captured Cossimbazar (taking as hostage William Watts and Begum Johnson), and then Calcutta, which fell after a short siege on 20 June 1756, during which the governor and many other officials escaped down the Hooghly River, leaving the remainder of the garrison and the Eurasian population of Calcutta to their fate. Calcutta did not just compete but was once a much larger financial centre than Bombay. The first native president of the Indian National Congress was Sir Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee and he was also the first Congress president to advocate self-rule by Indians, Sir Surendra Nath Banerjea (referred to by the British as "Surrender Not") were early eminent Calcuttans, who provoked and influenced nationalist thinking in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. On June 20, 1756, Siraj-Ud-Daullah, who was the Nawab of Bengal, attacked the city and captured the Fort William which was fortified by East India Company earlier; Calcutta was re-captured by Robert Clive in 1757 when the British defeated Siraj-ud-daullah on the battle-field of Plassey At the start of this seemingly impossible battle, generals Rai Durlav and Iar Latif held their armies together, but in an act of treachery Mir Jafar led his troops away from the battlefield, and the remaining army led by Mirmadan and Mohanlal was defeated. This culture was fostered in its wake by the Zamindari system, the Dayabhaga System the Hindu Joint Family System, the Mitakshara System, the Muslim Zenana System, the Protestant spirit of free capitalist enterprise, the Mughal-inspired feudal system and the Nautch. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. Thus, British imperialism began in India with the conquest of Bengal, a game in which a main pawn was the great city of Calcutta.  The centre of company control over the whole of Bengal from 1757, Calcutta underwent rapid industrial growth from the 1850s, especially in the textile sector, despite the poverty of the surrounding region. , The city's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic reforms in India introduced by the central government in the mid-1990s. These were taken up with enthusiasm by Hastings' rivals on the Governor General's Council, led by Philip Francis. In 1883, Surendranath Banerjea organised a national conference – the first of its kind in 19th century India. Captain Heath arrived in October 1688 in Bengal, took all of company persons on board, set sail to Balasore on 8 November 1688. The renaming of cities in India started in 1947 following the end of the British imperial period.Several changes were controversial, and not all proposed changes were implemented. Ask your question. The British East India Company was formed in 1599 under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1600. Mr. Charnock died in January 1692. The presence of a large number of war ships alarmed Shaista Khan and he immediately offered a truce. His study of Sanskrit with Pandit Ramlochan at Nadiya led him to posit the existence of the Indo-European family of languages. When the Marathas from the southwest began incursions against the Mughals in the western districts of Bengal in 1742, the English obtained permission from ʿAlī Vardī Khan, the nawab (ruler) of Bengal, to dig an entrenchment in the northern and eastern part of the town to form a moat on the land side. taraknathhati6733 taraknathhati6733 04.06.2020 History Secondary School +5 pts. He renamed Calcutta Alinagar after the previous Nawab, and his maternal grandfather, Alivardi Khan. The EIC would be forced out of India, unless something changed; 8 Robert Clive Conquers India(See pages 34-38 for As a result, Ibrahim Khan invited Mr. Charnock back to Bengal; but Mr. Charnock refused to come back until a specific Firman with terms and conditions clearly specified was issued by the Emperor so that they would not be subjected to further humiliations. The British EIC had Bombay, Calcutta and Madras and at first the British did not want more land. The early nationalists were inspired by Swami Vivekananda, the foremost disciple of the Hindu mystic Sri Ramakrishna and helped by Sister Nivedita, disciple of the former. It was assumed that the governor would abandon the city and then a peace treaty would be offered which would guarantee free trade and other economic benefits for the Company and he would give up the territory of Dhaka and Chittagong. As Dr. R. C. Majumdar stated in An Advanced History of India, "The Battle of Plassey may be truly said to have decided the fate of the French in India. In 1690, Job Charnok, an agent of the East India Company chose this place for a British trade settlement. The Elgin Road residence of Subhas Chandra Bose in Calcutta was the place from where he escaped the British to reach Germany during the Second World War. On 29 January 1780, Hickey's Bengal Gazette or the Calcutta General Advertiser became the first newspaper to be printed in India, and is an invaluable chronicle of the social life of Anglo-Indian society in Calcutta. The renaming of cities in India started in 1947 following the end of the British imperial period.Several changes were controversial, and not all proposed changes were implemented. Join now. Following similar moves elsewhere in the country, the state government changed the city's official name from Calcutta to Kolkata in 2001. The most accepted view is that it comes from the Hindu goddess Kali and the original name was KaliKshetra, "the place of Kali". During the rule of the emperor Aurangzeb (reigned 1658–1707), the English East India Company was permitted to establish its base at Calcutta ( Kolkata ). Calcutta saw the establishment of several different Western-style higher education institutions this period, including Sanskrit College (1824), Calcutta Medical College (1835), University of Calcutta (1857), Surendranath College (1885) and the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (1887), India's first research institute. Charnock arrived at Uluberia, started making a dock there, however soon started to dislike the place and wanted to return to Sutanuti. It took almost 20 years for the British to plan and accomplish, under the architectural skills of Luytens and Baker.  It is located at the North-Western corner of Raj Bhavan, and served as the Anglican Cathedral of Calcutta till 1847, when the see was transferred to St. Paul's Cathedral. Soon (on 2 January 1757) Watson and Robert Clive retook Calcutta with a force of company sepoys and the assistance of the Royal Navy. These documents tell the story of how the English were severely beaten and wiped out from Bengal several times by the forces of the Mughal Emperor and how each time they came back to Bengal to continue their trade. This conference heralded the birth of The Indian National Congress. It is also just as often as not referred to as a War of Independence, and as one historian put it, "The so called First National War of Independence was neither First, nor National, nor a War of Independence". Enraged with this situation and determined to establish their authority, the company requested King James II in 1685 to permit the use of force against the Emperor's army to settle the matter.  The British army consisted of 800 European soldiers and 2,200 Indian soldiers, while the Nawab's army was made up of 18,000 cavalry and 50,000 infantry. In 1698 the English obtained letters patent that granted them the privilege of purchasing the zamindari right (the right of revenue collection; in effect, the ownership) of the three villages. British raj, period of direct British rule over the Indian subcontinent following the uprising of 1857 and the abolition of the East India Company’s role in managing the region.  After the battle of Plassey in 1757, the Company started rebuilding the city. Gobindapore was cleared of its forests, and the new Fort William was built on its present site, overlooking the Hugli at Calcutta, where it became the symbol of British military ascendancy. According to the Court, the city has its genesis in the Maurya and Gupta period and it was an established trading post long before the Slave Dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughals, the Portuguese, the French or the East India Company established a modern township there. The East India Company chose the place for a trade settlement. Moreover, before the coming of the English, three local villages—Sutanati, Kalikata, and Gobindapore, which were later to become parts of Calcutta—had been chosen as places to settle by Indian merchants who had migrated from the silted-up port of Satgaon, farther upstream. Kali rises in the East Painted and gilded clay figure of Kali striding over Shiva, Bengal, Eastern India, late 19th century. By Ian Bremner Last updated 2011-02-17 In 1717 the Mughal emperor Farrukh-Siyar granted the East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees; this arrangement gave a great impetus to the growth of Calcutta. This was especially true in the old bases of British trade, such as Calcutta, Madras or Bombay, where a new Indian intelligentsia had begun to take root. The poor are still exploited by the bureaucrats, moneylenders and politicians. Admiral Nicholson was sent with ships to attack the port at Chittagong, fortify it, make an alliance with the King of Arakan who was against the Mughals, establish a mint and collect revenue, thus making Chittagong a fort city for the Company in the eastern part. A large number of Indian merchants flocked to the city. ", Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The illustrated history of the British empire in India and the East vol 3", "Job Charnock not Kolkata founder: HC Says city has no foundation day", "Kolkata: Heritage Tour: Religious Buildings: St. John's Church", "Remarks by U.S. Consul General Henry V. Jardine for the Bharat Chamber Of Commerce", Armenian College and Philanthropic Academy, Baranagore Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama High School, B. T. Road Government Sponsored H. S. School, Marine Engineering and Research Institute, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, West Bengal University of Health Sciences, West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Braithwaite, Burn & Jessop Construction Company, Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation (CESC), Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, Holy Rosary Cathedral (Portuguese Church), Kolkata Police Friendship Cup Football Tournament, Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Kolkata&oldid=999429434, Articles with Bengali-language sources (bn), All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles needing additional references from August 2011, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The name comes from the location of the original settlement beside a, The place was known for its manufacture of shell-lime, the name deriving from, The name came into being when Job Charnock asked a farmer the name of the area around Hooghly River. 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